By R. M. Marston (Auth.)
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VBB (I-WB V w h e r e RB = e x t e r n a l l o a d resistor (if a n y ) in series w i t h base 1. A n e x a c t Rs value is n o t i m p o r t a n t in m o s t a p p l i c a t i o n s , h o w e v e r . In s o m e circuits, RB is wired b e t w e e n base 1 a n d g r o u n d , as s h o w n in Fig. 2b either t o c o n t r o l t h e discharge t i m e of C or t o give a +ve o u t p u t pulse during t h e discharge p e r i o d . A —ve pulse is also available across Rs in this p e r i o d , if n e e d e d .
Operated switch A different t y p e of e l e c t r o n i c switch is s h o w n in Fig. 25. c. i n p u t w i t h an a m p l i t u d e greater t h a n a b o u t 100 m V is applied t o Q l base. T h e i n p u t i m p e d a n c e of t h e circuit r >i m > S 12V +Ve Fig. C. operated switch, needing 100 mV rms to operate relay is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 k£2. 5 V is applied t o Q l b a s e , so, w i t h n o i n p u t signal c o n n e c t e d , Q l , Q2 a n d t h e relay are off. c. plus a x . signal is a p p l i e d t o Q2 b a s e , a n d t h a t transistor is driven o n .
A large a m p l i t u d e +ve pulse is available across R , a n d a —ve pulse 4 across R ; b o t h pulses have an a m p l i t u d e of a b o u t half supply line 3 volts, are of similar f o r m , a n d are at a l o w i m p e d a n c e . With t h e c o m p o n e n t values s h o w n , t h e pulse w i d t h is c o n s t a n t at a b o u t 3 0 /isec over the frequency range 25 H z - 3 k H z (adjustable via Ri). T h e pulse w i d t h a n d frequency range can b e altered b y changing Fig. 4 Wide-range pulse generator giving 30 iisec output pulses at repetition frequencies of 25 Hz-3 kHz t h e value of C .
110 Semiconductor Projects for the Home Constructor by R. M. Marston (Auth.)