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3 To accommodate circumferential expansion of the ring when it is hot. With regard to point 3, although the coefficients of expansion of the cast iron and alloy steels from which the piston rings are made relate to that of the cylinder material, the circumferential expansion of the rings is greater because they attain a higher mean temperature, otherwise there would be no heat flow from one to the other. It is also for this reason that a piston ring, which maintains a uniformly distributed pressure against the cylinder when cold, is not likely to do so when hot, and this has therefore to be taken into account during manufacture.

Current practice is for the gudgeon pin to be retained by an interference fit, rather than by clamping it in a split eye with a pinch-bolt as in earlier designs. The latter method introduced a discontinuity into the connecting rod eye that Interference fit Gudgeon pin Small-end bush Retaining circlips Gudgeon pin Fully-floating gudgeon pin This is able to oscillate not only in the piston bosses, but also in the connecting rod eye that is bushed for the purpose, as described later. In order to prevent it from escaping sideways and contacting the cylinder wall, the fully-floating gudgeon pin must be located axially in the piston bosses.

28 Cut-away view of cylinder block Cylinder bores involves the use of steel instead of sand moulds, the need for an open-deck construction to allow withdrawal of the steel cores becomes mandatory. Also, the liners may be cast directly into the cylinder block to restore structural rigidity. An opendeck construction further allows inspection of the coolant jacket for accumulated deposits. To perform this operation in a closed-deck cylinder block requires the addition of detachable cover plates. In both closed-deck and open-deck cylinder blocks numerous internal supporting bosses must be provided for either the studs, or the setbolts, which clamp the cylinder head to the block.

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A-10 Warthog

by William

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