By Henry Griffiths
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Administration of untamed waterfowl has develop into more and more extensive. Many birds now hatch in controlled nesting conceal or in man made nesting buildings, use man-made wetlands, and iciness on crowded refuges whereas eating a grain nutrition The water they use is frequently restricted in offer and should include residues from its many past clients.
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You have to be aware of these biases, but should not make too much of them. Incompleteness is a fact of the epidemiologist’s life. Moreover, there is evidence that family doctors who notify make fairly accurate diagnoses: age distributions tend to be constant over many years (showing consistency) and changes in vaccination schedules leading to changes in age distributions of infected persons can be detected in notifications. Doctors are probably more likely to notify severe cases, or perhaps certain age groups more than others – babies and children, or the elderly.
International surveillance systems There is a need for rapid investigation and control of serious outbreaks anywhere in the world, especially in countries that may not have the necessary infrastructure or expertise, and the WHO Global Outbreak Alert & Response Network (GOARN) helps fill this void. The Network is a technical collaboration of existing institutions and networks which pool human and technical resources for the rapid identification and confirmation of, and response to, outbreaks of international importance.
In the event, the disease is probably not serious enough to warrant international surveillance, and such outbreaks, although they undoubtedly occur, are probably insufficiently common to justify the effort. Moreover, most point sources are not ongoing – they are usually a one-off food product, or a food-handler contaminating one dish. Rarely, a contaminated product, such as a frozen soft fruit, may be widely distributed across countries. International surveillance 45 West Nile virus West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne flavivirus spread by mosquitoes, which can cause infection in birds, animals and humans.
A handbook of veterinary parasitology : domestic animals of North America by Henry Griffiths