By Roger Gabriel (auth.)
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Additional info for A Patient’s Guide to Dialysis and Transplantation
Z A semipermeable membrane magnified many times. It is clear that blood cells are too large to pass across while waste products and water can flow down the pores PRINCIPLES OF DIALYSIS through easily while larger particles pass across slowly or not at all. Blood cells are far too big to cross a semipermeable membrane used in a dialyser. A small substance which easily escapes from blood is urea. The same is true for the salts which are present in blood. 4 show how a semipermeable membrane works.
The kidney machine has a number of dials and looks complicated. These dials 44 PRINCIPLES OF DIALYSIS Monitor dialS} of dialysu . 8 A diagram of the basic flow paths of a kidney machine. The blood pathway leads from the arm via the blood pump through the dialyser and back to the fistula. The dialysate pathway extends from the source of dialysate in the machine through the dialyser and then to the drains are safety devices which continually check different parts of the system. If a fault develops the machine 'alarms'.
This is called 'vascular access'. Vascular is an adjective meaning to do with blood vessels. There are two main forms of vascular access: 40 PRINCIPLES OF DIALYSIS The fistula A fistula is a direct connection, under the skin, between an artery and avein. It is made by sewing a vein in the forearm to the artery that runs down towards the base of the thumb. 5). Over the next month the vein grows larger due to the increased quantity of blood passing through it. When the vein has enlarged it is then possible to put wide bore needles through the skin into the fistula to carry blood to and from the dialyser each time the dialysis is needed.
A Patient’s Guide to Dialysis and Transplantation by Roger Gabriel (auth.)