By Gordon Kerr
From the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 to the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007, an obtainable historical past of the folks, principles, associations, and occasions that experience formed Europe over the past 1,200 years
This fascinating history for beginners provides a coherent map of the jumbled historical past of Europe and the ecu concept that has led up to this aspect. A continent of numerous disparate peoples, races, and countries, ruled through varied rules, philosophies, religions, and attitudes, Europe still has a standard thread of heritage working via it, sewing the lands and peoples of its earlier and current into one cloth and held jointly through the continent’s nice associations: the Church of Rome, the Holy Roman Empire, the eu Union, person monarchies, exchange enterprises, and social movements. However, humans have always harbored aspirations to make this enormous territory one. The Romans got here shut and some centuries later, the rules for a very good eu country have been laid with the construction of the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon overreached himself in trying to create a European-wide Empire—as did Adolf Hitler. Now, Europe is as shut because it ever has been to being one entity, but Europeans nonetheless hold to national independence.
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Whereas surrounded through the Axis powers in global battle II, Switzerland remained democratic and, not like so much of Europe, by no means succumbed to the siren songs and threats of the Nazi goliath.
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Extra resources for A Short History of Europe: From Charlemagne to the Treaty of Lisbon
The weakness of Etruria and the recruitment of Celtic mercenaries by Syracuse, and later by the Carthaginians, together with the covetousness of the inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul, fed the raid mentality central to the culture of the Celts. So numerous were their attacks upon Roman territory that it could be argued that the city was obliged to become a major military power - the first step towards becoming a world empire - because of its need to crush them. By 283 BC, Rome's nearest Celtic adversary, the Senones, had been decisively conquered and a vast army of Gauls were defeated at the battle ofTelemon in 225.
The figures appear uncannily like north-western Europeans, a resemblance which would be heightened were they still to have their original paint; indeed, it has been suggested that, suitably dressed, they could well have been members of a Scottish regiment. Most of them are naked, a frequent feature of classical portrayals of the Celts, and based, it would appear, upon memories of the ferocious Gaesatae. All but one are beardless but most sport a heavy moustache, another characteristic frequently mentioned by Greek and Latin authors.
Following Pergamum's victory in 233 BC, Attalus I commissioned a huge monument to celebrate its role as the defender of civilization against barbarism. Erected within the city's acropolis, probably in the sanctuary ofAthena, a comment by Pliny the Elder suggests that it was made of bronze. Two of the finest statues in the museums of Rome were long considered to be marble copies of some of the Pergamum bronzes. One of them is the famous Dying Gaul in the Museo Capitolino; now known to have been made from Anatolian marble, there is growing acceptance that the original monument was not of bronze, and that the statue in Rome was part of the original composition completed at Pergamum in the 220s.
A Short History of Europe: From Charlemagne to the Treaty of Lisbon by Gordon Kerr