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By understanding object-relational, other advanced features (j. melton, morgan kaufmann 2003)

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2 What Are UDTs? 23 items in a single cell (a name I use to describe the intersection of a column and a row, even though the SQL standard has no word for that concept) of a table, the database systems rarely supported any operations, including comparisons, on such data. If any operations were supported, they tended to be simple ones such as substring, concatenation, and basic comparisons (often limited to equality and inequality). In other words, the semantics of the data stored in such cells were not handled by the database system; they were left to the applications to tackle.

Instances of SQL's UDTs (that is, values whose data types are some UDT) thus contain state in the form of data stored in attributes and behaviors in the form of SQL-invoked routines that are associated with the UDT. UDTs, however, are encapsulated in SQL:1999~meaning that their internal details are obscured from the view of applications~by automatic provision of routines used to access and modify the values of attributes. In other words, applications do not directly retrieve the value of an attribute of a UDT, but code that specifies such a retrieval is implicitly converted to invocation of an observer m e t h o d that returns the attribute's value to the application; modification of an attribute is similarly handled by a mutator method.

As you would expect, the addition of object capabilities to SQL involved a bit of complexity. In order to make sense of the many different aspects involved, the SQL standardization groups identified and labeled a number of features associated with object orientation. Several of those features have been collected into two packages of features specifically associated with object facilities. ") One package, known as PKG006, "Basic object support," provides enough features for a minimal sort of "object-oriented SQL" implementation.

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advanced sql 1999 by understanding object-relational, other advanced features (j. melton, morgan kaufmann 2003)

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