By Michael L. Anderson
The pc analogy of the brain has been as broadly followed in modern cognitive neuroscience as used to be the analogy of the mind as a suite of organs in phrenology. simply because the phrenologist may insist that every organ should have its specific functionality, so modern cognitive neuroscience is dedicated to the suggestion that every mind quarter should have its primary computation. In After Phrenology, Michael Anderson argues that to accomplish a completely post-phrenological technology of the mind, we have to reconsider this dedication and devise an alternative, neuroscientifically grounded taxonomy of psychological function.
Anderson contends that the cognitive roles performed by means of each one quarter of the mind are hugely a number of, reflecting diversified neural partnerships demonstrated lower than diverse conditions. He proposes quantifying the useful houses of neural assemblies when it comes to their dispositional developments instead of their computational or information-processing operations. Exploring larger-scale matters, and drawing on proof from embodied cognition, Anderson develops an image of considering rooted within the exploitation and extension of our early-evolving skill for iterated interplay with the realm. He argues that the multidimensional method of the mind he describes deals an improved healthy for those findings, and a extra promising street towards a unified technological know-how of minded organisms.
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As is widely appreciated, conceptual metaphor theories comprise one of the most successful theoretical research programs in cognitive science. Originating with Lakoff and Johnson (1980, 1999) and extended by many Neural Reuse in Brain Function 17 others, perhaps most notably in the conceptual blending theory of Fauconnier and Turner (2002), conceptual metaphor theories suggest that cognition is dominated by metaphor-based thinking, whereby the structure and logical protocols of one or more domains, combined in various ways, guide or structure thinking in another.
Diversity is (1 – DV), normalized such that the values range from 0 (all activations in one category) to 1 (activations spread equally across all 11 categories). 12). 17). Put differently, the regions were active in an average of 95 tasks spread across nine cognitive domains. 2 using a cool-to-hot scale (gray indicates no information). The analysis was also performed in a brain divided into 1,054 neural regions. 13). Those 595 regions were activated by an average of more than 10 experiments across five cognitive domains.
Consider one of the earliest and most discussed cases of the reuse of neural structures for a new purpose, the Baddeley and Hitch model of working memory (Baddeley 1986; 1995; Baddeley & Hitch 1974, 1994). One strategy for remembering the items on a grocery list or the individual numbers in a phone number involves (silently) saying them to one’s self (producing a “phonological loop”), which engages brain areas typically used both in speech production and in audition. A pattern of findings supports the existence of a phonological loop and the engagement of both inner “speaking” and inner “hearing” to support working memory (see Wilson 2001 for a review).
After Phrenology: How to Study the Brain by Michael L. Anderson