By Philip Haygarth, Steven C Jarvis
This e-book is a suite of state of the art reports at the international difficulties of diffuse water pollutants from agriculture, which impacts the water caliber of rivers, lakes, reservoirs and the oceans. It contains chapters on eutrophication, phosphorus, nitrogen, manure, heavy metals, carbon/persistent natural pollution and soil/siltation difficulties. The publication is damaged down into 3 elements and displays the evaluations of the world's specialists in those matters.
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The distribution of P compounds between soil particle size fractions is an important property with regard to P transfer in runoff, because of the different susceptibilities of physical fractions to detachment, erosion and transport. The P content of soil particles often increases with decreasing particle size. , 1983). Despite the decreasing P contents with increasing particle size, large proportions of soil P are associated with the sand fraction. For example, in sandy soils receiving large amounts of manure, the proportions of NaHCO3-P and residual-P were larger in sand than in clay (86–87% sand) (Fig.
Grouping of the samples according to different soil use gave the order, arable Ͼ horticultural crops and grassland for the mean concentrations of resin-P and NaHCO3-P. This was in accordance with the large proportions of labile P in manure and the particular use of arable soils for its disposal. The large proportions of resin-P and NaHCO3-P show that, as well as greater total P concentration, the soils of this densely stocked area have more soluble P (Leinweber, 1996). In particular, liquid pig manure and poultry litter contain large amounts of P, of which large proportions occur as PO 43Ϫ (Leinweber, 1996).
This P probably comes from manure-derived specific light particles, which enter the sand fraction. Under the geographical conditions of northwest Germany, this P may be especially susceptible to losses by wind erosion. Soil phosphorus dynamics and transformations According to turnover rates, slow and rapid cycling organic and inorganic P pools can be distinguished (Fig. 2). Inorganic and organic P compounds can be assigned to these pools on the basis of sequential soil P fractionation methods. For instance, resin-P, NaHCO3-P and microbial biomass P represent most of the rapid cycling P.
Agriculture, Hydrology and Water Quality by Philip Haygarth, Steven C Jarvis