By U.S. Department of Transportation
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Appl Therm Eng 29(10):1973–1982 Cardella A, Celata GP, Dell’Orco G, Gaspari G, Cattadori G, Mariani A (1992) Thermal hydraulics experiments for the net divertor. In: Proceedings of the 17th symposium on fusion technology, vol 1. pp 206–210 Cavallini A, Del Col D, Doretti L, Longo G, Rossetto L (1999) A new computational procedure for heat transfer and pressure drop during refrigerant condensation inside enhanced tubes. J Enhanc Heat Transfer 6(6):441–456 Celata GL (2004) Series in thermal and ﬂuid physics and engineering.
In automobiles, the cooling system is responsible for thermal management of the engine block and passenger compartments. The engine life and its performance depend on coolant temperature. Usually a mixture of ethylene glycol and water is used as a coolant in the radiator of automobile engines. These ﬂuids possess poor heat transfer performance compared to water because of lower thermal conductivity. It is observed that conventional ﬂuids are unable to meet the increasing demand in cooling of automobile engines but with the advent of nanotechnology, it seems possible to prepare coolants with improved thermal properties by addition of small particles with higher thermal conductivity.
1 Classification of Nano-Fluids System It is possible to quote many examples present in the nature itself in the form of nanoparticles, some of which are shown in the Fig. 2 with length scale. K. 1007/978-3-319-29480-3_5 45 46 5 Nano-Fluids, Next-Generation Heat Transfer Fig. 1nm 1nm 10nm HIV virus ~100nm 100nm Blood cell ~7μm 1μm 10μm Hair ~100μm 100μm Insect ~10mm 1mm 10mm Fig. 2 Length scale and some examples of nanoparticles Nevertheless, depending upon the type of nanoparticle material, nano-ﬂuids may be addressed as (1) ceramic nano-ﬂuids (2) metallic nano-ﬂuids (3) carbonaceous nano-ﬂuids and (4) nanoemulsions.
Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics Airframe Handbook by U.S. Department of Transportation