By R. N. Swamy
This booklet stories the elemental motives and spectrum results of ASR. It considers he advances which were made in our realizing of this challenge through the global.
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Extra info for Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete
Sand’, are typically obtained from surficial deposits. These may have been laid down by water, by wind transportation, or even by glacial action. Such aggregates are likely to have an uncertain geological history and complex mineralogical constitution. g. quartz) should be abundant in natural sands. The quartz polymorph of SiO 2 is especially abundant on account of its insolubility and hardness, which makes it resistant to abrasion and degradation. Of course other silicates occur in sands: principally, these comprise minerals formed with SiO2, but containing in addition one or more common oxides such as those of aluminium, iron, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.
Crushed glass, geometric and true surface areas may be equivalent, whereas in others, such as cherts, the true surface exposed to attack is much greater than the apparent geometric surface area, owing to their porous nature. Moreover, the harmful effects of a particular aggregate may be variable, depending upon its content: this is the well-known pessimum effect which has been described by Hobbs6. 1 Origin and significance of pore fluid Since the alkali-aggregate reaction occurs in wet environments, it is not necessary to consider reactions in dry cement concretes, although the effects of periodic wetting and drying may require to be assessed.
Owing to the high calcination temperatures used, some material transport also occurs in the kiln by vapour phase transport as well as by the slow movement of the solid clinker. CaO, A1 2O3, iron oxides and SiO2 have low vapour pressures, and are transported with the clinker but others—such as sodium, potassium, carbon and sulphur oxides—have significant vapour pressures at clinkering temperatures. The result is that the hot vapour stream flowing through the kiln is rich not only in water and carbon dioxide, but also in sulphur, sodium and potassium species.
Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete by R. N. Swamy