Alternative Fuel - download pdf or read online

By Maximino Manzanera

ISBN-10: 9533073721

ISBN-13: 9789533073729

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2004). , 2005). The choice of the suitable alcohol for this process will depend on factors like its cost, availability, toxicity, easy of recovering and recycling, and the amount of alcohol needed for the reaction. , 2004). , 1998). , 2002) origin can be used as raw materials for biodiesel production. Microalgal oils have also received much attention as substrate for esters formation (Miao & Wu, 2006). Many agroindustrial processing operations generate a significant amount of lipids as by-products, such as chicken fat, beef tallow and fish oil.

As can be seen in Table 2, several enzymatic reactions are performed in organic media. An organic solvent is used in order to dissolve the reactants, to enable interesterification rather than simple hydrolysis to occur, because excess water would cause the enzyme to desorb from its support (Cheetham, 1995), and also to improve the mass transfer during the reaction, increasing its rates. In all the solvent-containing biocatalytic systems, however, the nature of the solvent influences the activity and the stability of the enzyme to a large extent.

Ferrari et al. (2005) produced ethyl esters from neutral soybean oil that were further mixed with petroleum-based diesel and tested as fuel in an energy generator. h-1. Technical problems with biodiesel include oxidative stability, cold flow, and increased NOx exhaust emissions (Knothe, 2008). Solutions to some of the aforementioned problems have included the use of additives, the modification of the fatty acid composition of the feedstock, or mixtures of components with advantageous properties (Knothe, 2008).

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Alternative Fuel by Maximino Manzanera


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